### Living Gravity

## When we measure gravity, the only thing that can be positively verified is that, here on the surface of the earth, gravity is an extremely constant upward acceleration. A constant upward acceleration could only be caused by a constant three dimensional expansion of the atoms within the earth. The universal expansion of matter is the cause of gravity.

All of the famous gravity theories begin by completely ignoring gravity’s only experimental fact and then begin crafting magical assumptions such as fields, infinite attractions, curved space-times, moving aethers, impinging virtual particles etc. What all of these assumptions have in common it that none are able to propose a way that gravity can be directly measured. All are metaphysical in nature and thus not subject to any positive experimental verification. All of this, just to refuse to step back and look at what gravity is actually doing.

Gravity is just an upward acceleration. This acceleration can only result from the linear expansion of the matter comprising the earth. It is this universal expansion of matter that is the simple and local cause of gravity.

This takes gravity from being a magical, infinitely complex and incomprehensible wonder of nature to being just a very slow and local expansion of atoms occurring at the very core of matter. The only thing non-local, infinite and metaphysical about gravitational expansion is the great synchronicity by which all bodies of matter expand at exactly the same rate throughout the whole of the Living Universe.

For this gravitational acceleration to be constant, relative to the increasing scale of the earth’s dimensions, it must in fact be a deceleration that translates into a constant velocity relative to inertial space. It is this constant upward velocity at the surface of matter that is the universal constant for gravity.

For the earth, the constant for gravity is an upward velocity of its surface of 11,179 m/sec. To see this surface velocity in action, we merely need to step back and observe the dynamics of the solar system or even the universe itself. As the planets are all moving at orbital velocities at right angles to the sun, their combined gravitational expansions brings their surfaces closer together. The result is that each remains at a constant average distance from the sun but appears to travel around the sun in an elliptical orbit that is actually a spiral in inertial space. There is no attraction or any other physical interaction between the sun and the planets. They remain in their “orbits” through a balance between their gravitational surface velocities and their orbital velocities. They appear to remain at the same distance apart because they are moving away from each other at the same rate that they are expanding together.

Besides just measuring the earth’s upward acceleration of gravity, there are other more direct ways of measuring the earth’s upward surface velocity. These involve the effect that this velocity has on the internal dynamics of matter. When a body is accelerated from rest, its mass is increased by the gamma factor. This increased mass within the atoms of an atomic clock causes the rate of the clock to slow by a proportionate rate. The rate the earth’s surface velocity decreases with increased altitude and inversely the ticking rate of clocks speeds up. This is true whether the measurements are made in the mountains or on orbiting satellites. This effect has been studied very carefully using Cesium clocks aboard GPS satellites and it can be accurately verified that the earth’s upward surface velocity is indeed a real velocity with a value of about 11,179 m/sec. The earth’s surface velocity at the GPS orbit is 5,471 m/sec. At this slower gravitational velocity the cesium clocks run faster by the appropriate amount. The Pound-Rebka experiment was able to measure the difference in surface velocity between the top and bottom of the Jefferson Tower at Harvard University.

### Force of Gravitation Cannot be Measured

Gravity is often used as an example of a natural law that almost everyone could agree on at least in terms of what gravity does. When we release a quarter from our hand, there is virtually unanimous agreement that it would accelerate downward until it strikes the floor. This idea, or rather belief, that falling bodies move toward the ground is one of the few metaphysical principles that has been allowed to remain within the standard model of physics.

A metaphysical principle is usually used as the initial premise of a physical theory. It is an idea that has great universal appeal but by its very nature is not subject to any kind of experimental verification. This is particularly true when it comes to quarters “falling” to the floor because every physicist knows that such an event would be impossible to measure. If they were to place an accelerometer on the quarter as it was released, it would show no downward acceleration at all. In fact, air resistance would cause it to show a slight upward acceleration. If they were to place another accelerometer on the floor beneath the falling coin, it would show that it was the floor that was accelerating upward toward the quarter.

In fact, with their entire array of sophisticated measuring instruments, no experimental physicists have ever been able to show that “falling” objects undergo any changes in motion toward the ground. Faced with this dilemma they quickly embrace the metaphysical Principle of the Equivalence of Gravity and Inertia. This allows them to discard the results of their measuring instruments in favor of what everyone “knows” to be true. When a coin falls, it moves downward to a stationary floor. Some physicists will even tell you that the Equivalence Principle has been proved by experiment to many decimal places, but in each case their “proof” is in the form of a null result. This is because Equivalence is a purely negative principle that states that no instrument is capable of directly measuring the change in a body’s motion produced by a gravitational “attraction”. The logic here seems to be that if our instruments show a falling coin to be absolutely motionless then we have “proved” the Equivalence Principle absolutely.

Why not just discard all of this metaphysical mumbo jumbo? At the very least, we should allow ourselves to consider the possibility that our instruments are right when they show us that the coin remains stationary, and it is the surface of the earth that falls up.

### Equivalence is Not a First Principle of Physics

The equivalence principle is merely an ad hoc metaphysical concept designed to allow one to imagine that gravity has magical non-local powers of infinite reach. The appeal to believe in such a miraculous form of gravity is very strong. Virtually everyone, and especially physicists, accept Equivalence as an article of faith even though it has never been positively verified by either experimental or observational physics. All of the many experiments and observations show that the equivalence of gravity and inertia simply does not exist. Gravity and inertia can absolutely not be equal or equivalent simply because they are exactly the same thing. There is only inertia and gravitational attraction simply does not exist! Unlike the omnipresent and infinite effects of the mythical gravitational field, the inertial effects of each body of matter in the universe extend only to the outer extremities of the body’s physical structure. For one body to exert inertial forces on another body, they must be in physical contact with one another. A falling body perceives no inertial forces until it is struck by the ground. All measurements show that Chicken Little was wrong. The sky is not falling down, it is** the earth that is falling up!**

In our intuition, we all watch the sun pass overhead each day but in our intellect we know that this isn’t true, because it is the surface of the earth that moves sideways (east) past a stationary sun. Likewise, we all see, as well as measure, the earth leaping up to collide with “falling” objects but insist that this isn’t true either because just as our perceptions insist that the earth doesn’t move sideways, they also demand that the earth doesn’t move upwards. Any skydiver will tell you of those free fall fantasies of being pushed upward by a strong wind as the earth rushes up towards them. These perceptions then vanish like interrupted dreams once the jumper collides with the ground. This is because belief or even faith in an unmoving earth goes far deeper than just the conscious level of our minds. It is easy for our intellects to understand that the sun does not pass overhead every day but somewhere at the very foundation of our subconscious is a place where the earth doesn’t move! Even though some of our most sensitive instruments show us that the earth falls up, that stubborn little place in our psyches won’t allow our conscious minds to entertain any such thoughts, except as metaphors to help understand the Equivalence principle.

### Gravity’s Mental Block

The Equivalence Principle, which by its very definition has no measurable effects, was developed not to account for any physical measurements but rather to satisfy the physicist’s deep psychological need for the permanence of mass, space and time. To say, as Einstein did, that space and time possess a “non-intuitive curvature” is just ambiguous enough to prevent the emotional regions of consciousness from rebelling at the idea that the actual values of mass, space and time are constantly changing in a complimentary way. The mind is comfortable in its inability to visualize a four dimensional curved space, but is very uncomfortable with the spectacle of the earth’s surface constantly moving away from its center. With the earth’s surface constantly moving upward at a velocity of 11,179 m/sec, it takes 19 minutes for the surface of the earth to quadruple in area and for the linear dimensions of its atoms and yardsticks to double. This process changes the definition of time from equal intervals of duration to intervals of constantly increasing duration. As the linear dimensions of matter doubles, the rate at which we measure the passage of time slows to one half.

At first thought, the concept of the gravitational expansion of matter seems to be impossible. However, after careful consideration, there is little if any concrete reason to conclude that complementary changes in the values of mass, space and time could not occur. In reality, the concept is not all that different from Einstein’s long accepted but counter intuitive “curvature” of space-time as proposed in his General Relativity theory. Einstein used the equivalence principle to allow just space and time to “curve” rather than consider the measured curvature of mass, space and time.

At least gravitational expansion is easy to visualize and the upward acceleration of the earth’s surface can be accurately measured with an accelerometer. By contrast, in General Relativity the curvature of space can not be visualized and no experiment has ever been proposed that can show falling bodies actually accelerating downward.

### Temporal Velocity and the Nonlinear Passage of Time

The first question that we must ask, once we allow ourselves to consider the principle of absolute motion and the gravitational expansion of matter, is how fast does matter expand? To determine this value, we must first establish a relationship between space, time, and gravity by measuring the period of a pendulum at sea level with a length of one meter and find it to be approximately two seconds. (P=2ϖ√L/g = 2.006 sec). We then use this value to determine the upward acceleration of the Earth (g = 4ϖ2L/P^{2}) to be 9.807 m/s^{2} and the radius of the Earth (R) to be 6,371,316m. With these two values, we can determine how long it would take for the radius of the Earth to double in size by calculating how long it would take the Earth’s surface to fall upward a distance of one radius. (_{1}T = √2R/g = 1,139.9 sec = 19 minutes). After making this calculation and then waiting 19 minutes for the dimensions of the Earth and our pendulum to double, we realize that this value can no longer be valid because now the meter bar in Paris is twice as long as it was when we started. This means that the rate of time must also have slowed because our one-meter pendulum still has a period of 2 seconds. Also, the acceleration of gravity (g = 4ϖ^{2}L/P^{2} = 1/2) must also have slowed its rate to one-half.

As matter expands, the absolute rate of time slows at a proportionate rate. The rate of 19 minutes is in minutes that are absolute to the point in time at the beginning of the doubling. Also, this value does not take into account that as altitude is increased, both the acceleration of gravity (g) and the surface velocity (V_{S}) are decreased. At an altitude of one radius above the earth’s surface (g = 1/4) its surface velocity is (V_{S} = √1/2 = .707) its value at sea level.

To determine the interval of clock time that it takes for the gravitational expansion of the earth to double its radius we must take into account these two changing values. To calculate the time it would take for the Earth’s surface to fall upward a distance of one radius we must take the difference in distance traveled between its sea level surface velocity of 11,179 m/s. (EV = √2Rg) and the surface velocity of 7,904. 7 m/s at one radius above.

To an outside observer watching the Earth expand, the doubling would seem to take longer because if he watched and measured the amount of time that it takes for a body one radius above the Earth’s surface to “fall” to sea level, he would observe that it takes over a half hour to reach the Earth’s surface. To obtain this value, we subtract the surface velocity at 2 radii (_{2}R_{E}V = _{1}R_{E}V/√2 = 7,905 m/sec) from the sea level surface velocity (11,179 - 7,905 = 3,274 m/sec). This gives us the average velocity that the surface of the earth is moving upward toward the falling body. One radius divided by this velocity gives us a time of fall of R/3,274 = 1,946 sec = 32.4 minutes. This value is also equal to (19 + 13.4 = 32.4).

The 32.4-minute value is in nonlinear units of gravitational time as measured by a clock, in which each consecutive interval has a longer duration. It follows from this that if we are to quantify the gravitational phenomenon in terms of clock time, we must characterize it not as a force, acceleration or attraction but as a velocity. The most logical unit to identify as the quantum for gravitational motion (G_{V}) is the surface velocity of the hydrogen atom at the Bohr radius. It is equal to 9.2116013 x 10^{-14} m/sec (G_{V} = √2a_{o}g). The acceleration of gravity (g) at the Bohr radius is 8.0175 x 10^{-17} m/sec2 (g = G_{V}^{2}/2a_{o}). The constant for gravity is not a force but the velocity at this radius. This is the escape velocity at the Bohr radius (a_{o} =5.29177249 x 10^{-11}m) which is the size of the mechanical bond between the proton and electron at the ground state of hydrogen. Thus, within the atoms of the Earth, the protons and electrons constantly grow larger at a velocity of 9.2116013 x 10^{-14} m/sec and the combination of these individual velocities creates the Earth’s sea level surface velocity of 11,179 m/sec (V_{S} = √2gR). While surface velocity and escape velocity have exactly the same values for points at or above the earth’s surface, for points inside the earth, the surface velocity decreases to zero at its center, whereas escape velocity continues to increase to a maximum at the center. Escape velocity is the upward velocity needed for a space ship to escape the upward velocity of the earth’s gravity.

### The Mystery of Gravity Solved

The principle of gravitational expansion is simple, straight forward and can be easily understood without the need of any complicated mathematical calculations. A child taught this principle could easily attain a far better understanding of the workings of gravity than even Einstein himself had with his mathematics of an imaginary multi-dimensional and curved entity of space-time.

If we have two bodies floating in space that are at rest with one another, we will see that as time goes by they will begin moving toward one another with an increasing velocity until they collide. We believe that we see the force of gravity pulling the two bodies together. While seeing may be good for believing, it is measurements that reveal the truth. Measurements show that the surfaces of the bodies accelerate in all directions until their surfaces meet. The centers of the bodies do not move until the bodies collide.

By seeing the expansion of surfaces instead of the inertial motion of matter, even a child can understand that what really happens is just the opposite of what we might think we see. Whether the two bodies slowly expand into one another or are attracted to one another, the physical event of them colliding would appear identical. Only measurement can reveal the truth. The child can then easily understand that gravity is the moving together of the surfaces of two bodies, and not the pulling together of their centers. When the child falls down, he feels the upwardly expanding surface of the earth strike him. The child can see no mystery in gravity. Gravity is simply caused by the expanding surfaces of atoms. Gravity has no hidden and magical mechanism extending its reach beyond a body’s expanding surface.

A body’s gravity extends only as far as its surface rather than extending to infinity. The only infinite feature of gravity is the total synchronicity of its constant rate of expansion across the whole universe. All the planets in the solar system move along a path that is almost parallel to the surface of the sun below them. The planets all move along in straight lines at just the right velocity to stay even with the velocity of the sun’s expanding surface. These paths appear to be curved into orbits by the way that space appears to curve when the expansion of matter is not included in the picture. If it weren’t for their orbital velocities parallel to the sun’s surface, the sun would expand into the planets and consume them.

### Gravities of Newton and Einstein

In Newton’s and Einstein’s idea, gravity is a metaphysical infinity in which no physical mechanism is ever offered to explain just what makes gravity work. To simply explain exactly how gravity works using either curved space or gravitational attraction has been beyond anyone’s abilities. You can describe gravity mathematically but no one can explain the actual physical way by which the mathematics can connect gravity to the universe, except in the most general of terms. There is no way to get past the great oxymoron of gravitational theory: “Action at a distance”. The non-local nature of gravity is hard to comprehend when we consider that each body must be actively connected to all other bodies across the whole universe.

By contrast, the purely local principle of gravitational expansion requires no interaction between bodies other than physical contact. Gravitating bodies are not pulled or pushed together by unseen forces. They simply grow toward one another until their outer surfaces come into contact. After this initial contact, the gravitating bodies continue to push on one another with gravitational force.

The idea of expanding matter as the cause of gravity is so easy to understand that few can believe that such a simple and local explanation of gravity could possibly be true. The idea of gravitational attraction that has long been considered as the greatest of all metaphysical mysteries. Gravitational expansion has no metaphysical assumptions and can be seen as the simplest of physical mechanisms.

Even though gravitational expansion might be very hard on your intuitive belief system, it is easy to see that the idea can work well at explaining simple and fundamental gravitational interactions like the surface of the earth accelerating upward to meet a stationary “falling” object. While expanding gravity may be exceedingly easy to understand, it is equally hard to believe. No one wants to imagine that their body is continually getting larger and larger. But is it easier to believe that all bodies in the universe are connected to all others with individual and infinite strings of force?

### General Relativity vs Gravitational Expansion

Gravitational expansion is like a mirror image of General Relativity. Both theories explain gravity in terms of the changing geometry of mass, space and time. In General relativity theory, gravity results from the non-intuitive changing dimensions or “curving” of space-time. In the principle of gravitational expansion, gravity occurs with the constantly changing geometry of matter and time. Since both ideas begin with the equivalence of gravity and inertia as their fundamental component, it is easy to see why the calculations and predictions for both gravitational attraction and gravitational expansion are nearly always identical.

In general relativity, space and time are the primary components of mass and gravity is the interaction of this space-time with mass. In the principle of gravitational expansion mass is the primary reality and space and time are the ideas used to connect mass with gravity. In general relativity, gravity is caused by the curving motion of space-time relative to mass and in gravitational expansion gravity is the curving motion of mass-time relative to space.

From the standpoint of philosophy in general and the philosophy of Occam’s Razor in particular, the functional simplicity of the principle of gravitational expansion is far superior to the mind numbing complexity of other gravitational theories. It can be stated that the principle of gravitational expansion is not even a theory because it makes no hypothesis. It simply takes the measured upward acceleration (9.8 m/sec2) of the earth’s surface at face value. No theory is needed to explain these measurements unless we try to reverse them and insist in believing, as Ptolemy did, that the earth can’t move. Rather than theorise about gravity, we simply measure it and what we measure it to be is an upward force.

Gravity is a completely local effect caused by the gradual and constant expansion of matter. It can be quantified as an outward velocity from the Bohr radius. Gravity’s only non-local characteristic is the way that this constant expansion proceeds with perfect synchronicity throughout the whole universe. Gravitational motion is the true measure of absolute time and gravitational clocks measure time as a constant. The time measured by inertial clocks is altered by the motion of the clock due to its changes in mass. The rate of a body’s gravitational expansion proceeds at exactly the same rate no matter what its absolute velocity through space.

### The New Gravitational Constant G_{V}

Gravity is simply a constant outward three dimension velocity from the center of matter. Space and time are mere ideas with no existence in physical reality except as a means to quantify the absolute physical reality of mass. As the absolute values of matter’s mass and size constantly change with gravitational expansion, the rate at which we measure time also changes at a proportionate rate. The true gravitational constant is thus not a force per unit of mass and space as defined by Newton, but instead it is characterized as a simple velocity at the radius of a particular body of matter such as the hydrogen atom at the Bohr radius.

**Masslength**

To determine the value for this new fundamental constant (G_{V}) to replace the old gravitational constant (G) we must first determine the ratio between the earth’s overall density and the intrinsic density of hydrogen at the Bohr radius (a_{o}). By coincidence, we find that the density of the Earth (5,518.9 kg/m^{3}) is very close to the intrinsic density of the hydrogen molecule (H_{2}) at the Bohr radius (5,432.3 kg/m^{3}). The density of Earth is 1.015942 (_{m}H_{2}/a_{o}^{3}). We then take the cube root of this value (1.005286) to establish a new parameter of matter called masslength (M_{L}). Masslength is a unit of mass divided by a unit of length. The masslength at the Bohr radius is exactly one _{m}H_{2}/a_{o}=1.0, the masslength of the earth at sea level is 1.005286 _{m}H_{2}/a_{o}, and the mass/length at the surface of the moon is (.85054 _{m}H_{2}/a_{o}).

**Speed of Gravity = (G _{V}) = 9.2116013 x 10^{-14} m/sec**

To measure the new constant for gravity we measure Earth’s mean sea level gravity to be about (g = 9.807 m/sec^{2}) and then determine its escape velocity to be about V_{es} = 11,179 m/sec). We thus arrive at the value for the New Constant for gravitational velocity (G_{V}) = 9.2116013 x 10^{-14} m/sec. This constant is not a force, an attraction or an acceleration. Rather it is the constant velocity of the circumference of the Bohr radius away from its center. The Bohr radius of each atom moves away from its center at the constant velocity of (G_{V}). This constant is every bit as fundamental and absolute as the speed of light (C). Just as the speed of light is very fast, the speed of gravity is very slow. For the Bohr radius to increase its dimension to one meter would take 10^{13} sec or about 344,000 years. On the other hand, with 10^{17} Bohr radii stacked up between us and the center of the earth, our velocity away from its center is 11,179 m/sec.

** With the constant (G _{V}) we can find a body’s value of (g) at any radius (r) with the formulas:**

With these equations we can calculate the gravity of the earth at the North Pole to be (g = 9.852 m/sec^{2}), at the equator to be (g = 9.786 m/sec^{2}), and the gravity at the Moon’s surface to be (g = 1.6205 m/sec^{2}). These values are exactly the ones that are measured at these locations.

**Unified Non-Field Theory **

Einstein spent a lot of time trying to develop a “unified field” theory by which he could unite gravity with special relativity and quantum mechanics within a single mathematical system. Where he failed was in his assumptions of fields where none existed. He didn’t realize that there is a simple mechanical non-field interaction between the functions of matter and gravity. Mass has the two properties of inertia and gravity. These are combined into a unified mechanical interaction. These equations show the functional dynamics of the earth’s gravity with just a velocity instead of a field.

### Infinite Speed of Gravity

In his book, DARK MATTER,MISSING PLANETS & NEW COMETS, Tom Van Flandern, goes into some detail describing experiments designed to determine the velocity at which the gravitational interaction takes place between heavenly bodies. Newton considered this speed of gravity to be infinite and Einstein believed it to be the speed of light. Observation of the planets in the solar system as well the revolution of binary pulsar show the velocity of the gravitational interaction to be, if not infinite, then at least many orders of magnitude greater than the speed of light.

If we consider gravity to be the result of the expansion of matter, then there is no direct “physical” interaction between heavenly bodies and therefore the velocity of the gravitational “interaction” between bodies is infinite because it occurs to each body at the same instant. It is gravitational synchronicity that makes Van Flandern’s “speed of gravity” infinite.

### Curved Matter-Time

The first thing that one must realize when contemplating gravitational theory is that the only real difference between the principle of gravitational expansion and general relativity theory is just one of perspective. Both theories are based on the validity of the equivalence principle and each can be viewed as the mirror image of the other. Both theories are just opposite yet complimentary interpretations of the equivalence principle and gravity’s various experimental verifications. The four dimensional mathematics that Einstein used to explain the gravitational dynamics of curved space-time would work equally well to explain the dynamics of the gravitational expansion of matter-time. The main difference is that gravitational expansion provides intuitive understanding of gravitational dynamics and general relativity just supplies the complex mathematics of curved space-time.

Both theories explain gravity in terms of changing geometry. General relativity explains gravity in terms of curving space-time and gravitational expansion shows gravity to be a curving of matter-time.

### The Fourth Vector

One aspect of gravitational expansion that is difficult to visualize is the process of orbital revolution. The mechanics of orbital revolution as it is explained by the principle gravitational expansion of matter is very difficult if not impossible to visualize in the mind’s eye. The orbiting satellite moves away from the earth along a fourth vector and at two different velocities. This motion moves the satellite away from the earth at the same rate that the earth’s surface expands toward it. The satellite moves away from the earth through inertial space at the same rate that the earth follows it through gravitational space.

However, this visualization problem is even more difficult within General Relativity. Einstein described orbiting bodies as moving in inertially straight lines through “curved space”. Gravitational expansion describes orbiting bodies as moving along an inertially straight fourth vector past curving bodies of matter.

While it is easy to visualize matter expanding outward into empty and inert space, it is impossible to imagine the curvature of something as intangible as space-time. For example, consider a cannon being fired at a distant target. We seem to see the cannonball follow a curved path, known as a parabola, as it goes high above the earth and then comes down at the stationary target. However, if we set our intuitions aside and carefully measure the flight of the cannonball with accelerometers, we find that it travels in a straight line and at a constant velocity (disregarding air resistance) from the time it leaves the cannon until it collides with the target. Measurements made at the target clearly show that it accelerated upward until it overtook the rising cannonball.

### The Cannonball Orbit

If a series of cannonballs is fired with increasingly greater muzzle velocities they will travel farther and farther before “falling” to earth. If a cannonball was fired horizontally from the top of Mt. Everest with a muzzle velocity of 7,905 m/s it would form a circular orbit around the earth were it not for atmospheric resistance.

While the paths of the first few cannonballs are easily rationalized from apparent curves to actual straight lines, this task becomes increasingly difficult as they travel farther around the earth. At the point where an orbit is reached, the mind has great difficulty converting its vision of a circular orbit into an inertially straight line. The reason that the mind has such great difficulty with this non-intuitive process is that dimensionally gravitational expansion occurs along a fourth vector of nonlinear motion. This fourth vector does not occur within the imaginary three-dimensional Euclidean void that is common to the perceptions of our five senses. Gravitational orbits occur behind our backs when we are not looking.

### Cloud Formation

The oldest and most ubiquitous of the dark matter enigmas has been completely ignored by all serious theorists. This is the mysterious way that individual dense clouds of water vapor rapidly form in the earth’s lower atmosphere. Perhaps the reason that this effect has escaped scientific notice is because clouds are too close to interest astronomers and to far away for particle physicists. The primary reason for this neglect is that there is no known physical force in the standard model of physics that could make clouds behave in the way that they do. Cosmologists are very aware of this same problem as it pertains to the difficulty of explaining how diffuse clouds of hydrogen gas could quickly segment into individual clouds that could then condense into galaxies and then individual stars and solar systems.

As the surface of earth expands sideways from the effect of gravitational expansion, it stretches out uniform layers of clouds into many individual segments that are themselves divided into still smaller segments. Every casual observer has observed this segmenting of clouds and many occasions. This segmenting of clouds is almost always apparent whenever clouds are observed for any length of time. Even though the segmenting caused by the stretching of clouds is a universally observed characteristic property of clouds that to my knowledge doesn’t ever have a name.

Although we can’t easily experiment with clouds, we can demonstrate a similar process by spray painting a partially inflated balloon. Once the paint has dried and the balloon is then fully inflated, the paint will crack into segments that form patterns almost identical to the segmenting commonly observed in atmospheric clouds. These stretch marks in the sky offer dramatic proof that the surface of the earth is constantly expanding in all directions beneath the cloud layer.

Einstein’s curved space-time theory of gravity is clearly unable to create segmented clouds. In most cases, the mathematical equations describing curved space-time are identical to those describing the “curved matter-time” of gravitational expansion. However, this is one case where the predicted dynamics of the two theories are different. In general relativity, it is the space within the cloud that is curving and moving and there is no requirement that any of the droplets to undergo any inertial movement. In General Relativity, it is the “curving” paint that inflates the balloon. In the principle of gravitational expansion, it is matter that is curving and moving through inertial space. With the surface of the earth moving sideways beneath the cloud with real inertial motion, all of the droplets must be moved one way or another in the process and segmented into smaller and smaller groups. Gravitational expansion inflates the balloon and stretches the paint.

### Gravitational Psychology

Perhaps the most fascinating aspect of the Principle of Gravitational Expansion is not the actual physical mechanics of the idea itself but the negative psychological reaction that people have when first exposed to the idea. Even though the idea is a simple and even obvious explanation of gravity, it is never even considered as an option when gravitational theories are discussed.

It has always been a great mystery to me why Einstein never even appears to have considered the possibility of gravitational expansion before establishing the principle of equivalence as the foundation of General Relativity. To me it seems impossible that any scientifically minded person could even arrive at the principle of equivalence without first considering gravitational expansion and then offering some reason for rejecting it. This is like failing to look both ways before crossing a busy street. It is almost like there is a powerful but unconscious taboo deeply buried at the foundation of human psychology that prevents the idea of gravitational expansion from ever rising spontaneously into the conscious layers of the mind.

When he was working on his theories, Einstein was highly uneducated by any of the educational standards of today. He didn’t know about neutrons, neutrinos, antimatter, cosmic rays, dark energy, Compton scattering, the weak or strong interactions, galaxies, quasars, gamma ray bursts, pulsars, or even the 2.7°CBR. Even so, he wasn’t stupid and must have spent at least some of his time thinking about gravity. How could he have missed the principle of gravitational expansion? It would seem that simple logic would demand that gravitational expansion at least be considered by anyone contemplating an idea as peculiar as the Equivalence Principle. The first time I learned about Equivalence over forty years ago, gravitational expansion got stuck in my head and I haven’t been able to get it out since.

### Gravitational Paranoia

I know from personal experience the great power of the negativity that accompanies this idea. Many times during the past forty years that I have devoted to developing and promoting the Principle of Gravitational Expansion, I have experienced very strong feelings welling up from deep in my own psyche that the idea couldn’t possibly be true, even though I could never find any physical evidence that could even be remotely interpreted in such a way as to cast doubt on it.

Also, I have never ceased to be amazed by the immediate negative reaction of both scientists and laymen when the idea of gravitational expansion is explained to them for the first time. Disbelief is far too mild a term to describe their immediate and perhaps even involuntary hostility to the suggestion that their bodies, as well as the earth itself might be constantly increasing in size. Logical arguments and physical evidence are never used to counter the idea. To many the idea is so distasteful and obviously wrong that the issue becomes one of morality as much as intellect. My credibility immediately evaporates when they realize that I am serious and therefore must have some kind of serious mental defect to attempt to promote an idea. Even people without any scientific training can immediately identify gravitational expansion as being totally false. The subject is not even open for discussion because everyone seems to know instinctively that matter can’t possible expand. This seems to be an intrinsic psychological reaction against change that almost no one is able to overcome.

I am told that I fail to realize that the real beauty of the Equivalence Principle is that it allows us to transcend the limitations of the physical measurement process and to establish effects beyond their reach. They say something like, “*The Equivalence Principle is true because it predicts that a false upward acceleration will be measured at the earth’s surface that is exactly equal and opposite to the true acceleration of a falling body that is otherwise undetectable in any way. Therefore we know this measured acceleration to be truly false and this undetectable acceleration to be truly real because they are predicted to be so by the equivalence principle that is thus proven to be true.*” Its hard to argue with someone when you can’t even agree on the distinction between up and down.

Since no experiment has ever yet been able to falsify it, we can accept or at least consider as fact that the upward gravitational acceleration of the earth’s surface, as measured by an accelerometer, produces real motion through absolute inertial space. If experimental evidence could ever be found to invalidate the principle of gravitational expansion, it would also serve as a falsification of the Equivalence Principle, because the principle of gravitational expansion, in effect, demands that the Equivalence Principle be both absolute and unnecessary and must be replaced by the principle of Absolute Motion.

### Principle of Equivalence (Einstein)

“In an arbitrary gravitational field no local experiment can distinguish a freely falling non-rotating system (non-inertial) from a uniformly moving system in the absence of a gravitational field.”

**Principle of Equivalence is replaced by Principle of Absolute Motion.**

### Principle of Absolute Motion

**All acceleration measured by an accelerometer produces real change in motion, either acceleration or deceleration, relative to photon rest. All change in motion relative to photon rest, either acceleration or deceleration, is registered by an accelerometer. Deceleration is distinguished from acceleration by the increasing rate of an atomic clock undergoing deceleration and the slowing rate of a clock undergoing acceleration.**

### The Living Universe Book

## A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.