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The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

Photon Energy, Mass, Velocity And Wavelength

The Nature of the Photon

The photon is the basic form of mass in the Living Universe

The photon is a matter-antimatter pair of positive mass and negative mass. All photons contain both a positive mass body and an equal negative mass body. A hydrogen atom a big piece of positive mass (proton) connected to a small piece of negative mass (electron). When a photon is emitted by an atom, its mass is half positive mass from the proton and half negative mass from the electron.

The nature of the photon is the measurements that we make of it. The concept of the photon is basically just what we might think the photon “looks like”. While there is only one set of measurements of the photon’s nature, everyone has a different concept of just what the photon might really be.

All measurements show that the photon has mass. The metaphysical assumption of a massless photon is completely without any experimental verification. Experimental physics has measured the photon in nearly every way possible and technology has exploited the nature of the photon to a remarkable extent. Collectively these measurements all measure the nature of the photon’s mass. Each idea of a massless photon is someone’s concept of the photon that makes it possible to ignore certain aspects of photon measurements.

Physics begins and ends with the reality of the photon. Everything we know of in the universe, that can be observed and measured, can be explained in terms of the interaction of the appropriate photons. In fact, in order to read this page, you must engage in a complicated manipulation of a very narrow band of photons called visible light. The nature of the photon is an absolute set of parameters that must be fitted into any arbitrary concept of the photon.

The photon has many different basic measurable parameters and constants that need to be constructed into any concept of the photon. The circlon concept of the photon is based on the characteristics of a non-field, quantum mechanical, matter/antimatter mass particle pair. The photon always moves with wavelike motion through absolute Newtonian space at C. The circlon photon concept is a completely mechanical particle with a complex characteristic spin. It is not unlike the human concept of a complex machine.

Eleven Photon Parameters

photon energy

Velocity C
Mass M
Energy E = MC2 = hf
Wavelength λ
Photon Masslength Y = Mλ
Hydrogen Masslength MLH = MH/ao
Momentum p = MC
Frequency f = C/λ
Dimensional constant √α ao
Constant angular momentum Mλ C/2ϖ = Iϖ
Planck’s Constant h = E/f = Mλ C = YC

Each photon is comprised of two hollow mass strings of precisely the same lengths l. These positive and negative strings spin in opposite directions and undulate with a wave-like motion as the photon moves at C. Half of the photon’s kinetic energy is contained in the opposite spins of these strings and the other half is contained in the motion of the photon’s mass through space.

The most basic experimental fact of the photon is that all photons travel at exactly the speed of light relative to each other within a single inertial reference frame. This has been demonstrated by a number of measurements. Binary pulsars show that the rapid motion of a photon’s source has no effect on its velocity of c through space. All photons are emitted at rest, regardless of the motion of their source. The Doppler shift of photons shows that any motion of the photon’s source changes its energy and wavelength. The timing of supernova explosions shows that even photons from the most distant supernova all travel at the same speed as photons today. The individual the Doppler effect 2.7°CBR photons allows us to measure the earth’s absolute motion relative the photon emission rest frame.

The most amazing thing about the photon’s nature is the unimaginably vast rang of the photon’s mass-energy-wavelength relationship. Very energetic cosmic ray photons have over thirty orders of magnitude more energy than broadcast radio photons and these are not even the limits of the spectrum. All of these photons have the same exact ratios of mass, energy and wavelength, and each travels in its own one dimensional space.

A basic way of generating photons is the radiation spectrum of the hydrogen atom. The most basic are the ionization photons formed when an electron couples to a proton to form a hydrogen atom. The outer circlon shaped ionization coils of the proton connect with the outer coils of the electron. The combination of these two sets of coils forms a circular photon that holds the atom together. This circlon shaped photon then divides in two with one regular photon being emitted into space and with the other remaining as a circlon photon to hold the atom together. This process is repeated when energy is added to the atom. This is just one of the many ways that photons can be generated but in each case the photons get half of their mass from an electron and the other half from a proton.

The Concept of the Photon

A theory of the photon is an arbitrary set of assumptions and attributes used to account for someone’s idea of explaining the photon’s nature. A concept of the photon was inserted into Einstein’s theory of relativity almost as an afterthought. It was initially a mere mathematical construct used to explain the photoelectric effect but it then morphed into a massless wave-like disturbance within an electromagnetic field. Its attributes were selected to make it compatible with both the classical wave theory of light and the preestablished postulates of Special Relativity.

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Binary Pulsars

If we construct a concept of the photon based solely on the vast amount of experimental data establishing its nature, rather than trying to pour it in a preconceived mold, we find we have a photon that can be quite different from the ones imagined by Special Relativity and Quantum Field Mechanics. A photon with mass and shape does not have to be part of a field. The atom and the photon interact mechanically without any fields.

In the Living Universe, the standard for absolute motion provides a continuity of mass in the interactions between photons and atoms. Without a need to make transformations between mass and energy there is no need for the idea of the field to initiate these transformations. In the Living Universe the physical interaction of the mass of the photon eliminates the need for any field interactions for the transfer of energy. When a photon is absorbed by an atom it adds it mass to the atom’s mass but retains its basic own identity within the atom until it is emitted and takes its mass from the atom.

Red and Blue Doppler Shifted Green Photons

The next drawing shows ten different kinds of red and blue Doppler shifts that can occur with different kinds of relative motion between source and observer. In this thought experiment, a spaceship is moving relative to the earth at 1/3 C. Six observers on the spaceship and four on the earth all measure Doppler shifted photons at different angles and at different relative velocities. All the light bulbs produce green photons with every other tick of the clock. These green photons are Doppler shifted to other colors by either the motion of the spaceship or the motion of the observers. The speed of light is one large square per clock tick and all of the Doppler shifts are drawn to scale for a velocity of 1/3 C.


Binary Pulsars

binary pulsar

The observation of binary pulsars offers very convincing experimental evidence that all photons move at exactly C within the same reference frame. A binary pulsar emits rapid bursts of X-ray photons at very regular intervals as it revolves around a companion star. When photons from a pulsar are carefully measured, it is found that they are blue shifted when the revolving pulsar is moving toward the earth and red shifted when the pulsar is moving away. Even though the pulsar may be two hundred thousand light years from earth, the photons remain perfectly lined up in their order of emission. They are observed as repeating sequences of first red shifted photons and then blue shifted photons. If the changing motion of the revolving pulsar had any effect on the photons’ velocity of C, then the photons could never have remained in their sequence of emission for two hundred thousand years. If any of these photons moved even slightly faster or slower than C, then they would be observed as a jumbled up mixture of red and blue shifted photons.

These observations of binary pulsars are frequently offered as proofs of Special Relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. However, while they prove quite conclusively that all photons always move at C relative to each other within a common inertial reference frame, they also demonstrate that photons almost never move at C relative to either source or observer. A typical orbital velocity for a binary pulsar can be .001C. This means that the red shifted photons are moving at 1.001C relative to the pulsar and the blue shifted photons are emitted at a relative velocity of only .999C. The very fact that the velocities of both the pulsar and the earth can change while the velocity of the photons cannot, means that the relative velocity between a photon and either its source or observer must always be either less than or greater than C except for the special case of an observer at absolute rest.

When I presented this principle of Absolute Photon Motion at the 2008 NPA meeting in Albuquerque, NM, an objection was made by one of the participants who is an advocate of Walter Ritz’s emission theory of light. This theory proposes that photons are always emitted at C relative to their source. The problem with this theory lies in the way that Doppler shifts are produced by the source in opposite directions.

The statement was made that the photons could have been emitted at different velocities from the pulsar and were then absorbed and re-emitted by gas molecules in the vicinity of the pulsar. This would make the photons all move at C relative to the gas molecules in the intervening space. The one big problem with this idea is that even very cold molecules of gas can have individual velocities of hundreds of meters per second. This would mean the individual photons would still have different velocities as they traveled to earth. On a journey of 200,000 light years, a difference in velocity between photons of just one meter per second would mean a difference in travel time of almost 6 hours. If according to Ritz, the photons gained and lost velocity from the pulsar’s .001c orbital velocity, there would be about four hundred years difference in travel time between photons from different sides of the orbit. All photons must travel at exactly c or the pulsar’s precise red and blue shifted pulses would be blurred into a steady signal. In fact, the absolute common velocity of all photons is what keeps the red shifted spectral photons of the Living Universe from becoming a meaningless blur.

The Compton Effect

The Compton Effect is another big reason why the X-ray photons from the pulsar could not have been absorbed and re-emitted on their way to earth. In 1923, Arthur Compton discovered that the dynamics of a collision between a photon and electron is virtually identical to the dynamics involved in the collision between any two bodies of mass such as billiard balls. At the time, there was still a good deal of debate as to whether light traveled as a wave within an electromagnetic field or whether it existed as individual and independent particles. The Compton effect offered convincing proof for the latter.

compton scattering

When visible light photons are absorbed and re-emitted by electrons within an atom, their wavelengths remain virtually unchanged. However, when photons of much greater energy and shorter wavelengths such as X-rays are absorbed and re-emitted by electrons, they lose energy and momentum and can be deflected in any direction. In an encounter with an at rest electron, a photon will increase its wavelength by an amount between zero at 0° deflection and 4.8526x10-12m at 180° deflection. The value of this increase is constant for a given angle and is independent of the wavelength of the photon being deflected. For a visible light photon with a wavelength of 4.8510-7 m this represents a maximum increase of only 1/100,000λ. However, an X-ray photon that has a wavelength the same as the Bohr radius, (λ = 5.29x10-11m) would increase its wavelength by about 1/10λ, and a photon that has the same mass as an electron (λ = 2.426 x 10-12m) would triple in wavelength in a 180° reflection from an electron.

With even only a minor amount of Compton scattering, a pulsar’s X-ray bursts would be blurred beyond recognition. For example, visible starlight can pass through the earth’s atmosphere with virtually no blurring, however, X-rays are scattered so completely that few ever reach the earth’s surface.

The Mass of Photons

For an example of how the change in a body’s kinetic energy must also change its mass, consider a thought experiment in which a flywheel has evenly spaced mirrors attached to its outer surface like the fins of a paddle-wheel. The wheel is made of an exceedingly strong imaginary material and is spun so fast that the mirrors are moving at a velocity of 1/3 C.

Two lasers, A and B, shoot photons at the mirrors on opposite sides of the wheel so that the mirrors are moving at 1/3C toward the photons from laser A and at 1/3C away from the photons from laser B. These photons, are all emitted from the lasers with a wavelength, energy and mass of exactly one (λ=l), and all move at exactly C relative the same inertial rest frame common to all photons. These photons all reflect from the mirrors at the same velocity C that they had before striking the mirror. The velocity of the mirrors has no effect on the photons’ velocity but it does change their wavelength, energy and mass.

photon flywheel

The photons from laser A are blue-shifted to a wavelength of λ=.70711 as they reflect from the approaching mirror, and their energy and mass are increased to 1.414. In this process, the velocity of the spinning wheel is slowed as mass and energy are transferred to the reflecting photons.

The photons from laser B are red-shifted as they reflect from the receding mirror to a wavelength of λ =1.414 and an energy and mass of .70711. In this case, the velocity of the wheel increases as mass and energy are transferred from the photons to the wheel. In both of these examples, momentum is conserved and both mass and energy remain separate and constant.

If we attempt to explain this experiment in terms of massless photons then the conservation of mass is lost. The photons from laser A take energy away from the wheel and decrease its mass. Laser B photons transfer energy to the wheel and increase its mass. In both cases, energy remains constant but mass either vanishes into or appears from nowhere. How can mass and energy be equivalent if energy remains constant but mass does not? If energy has mass how can photons not have mass?

The Uncertainty of Planck’s Constant

The whole reason that quantum mechanics needs the uncertainty principle lies in its failure to divide Planck’s constant into its component parts. h = MλC = YC. Y is the constant for masslength (Y=Mλ). Its value is the mass (M) times the wavelength (l) of any photon. Planck’s Constant provides a parameter for a point particle. When h is divided into masslength Y, the particle can no longer be a point as defined by Planck’s constant. It must be a shape as defined by masslength. Quantum mechanics needs Planck’s constant and the uncertainty principle because it fails to give mass to the photon and physical dimensions to the proton and electron.

All particles are defined by their masslength and not just by their mass or wavelength separately. Both photons and atoms have masslengths that interact to emit and absorb photons. By giving all particles mass, size and shape, the uncertainty of a point particle’s position becomes merely its volume. Everywhere that the Uncertainty principle appears, it is rendered redundant by replacing Planck’s constant (h) with the masslength constant (Mλ).

Photons as Bullets

Photons can be viewed as ballistic projectiles that are similar in concept to bullets and artillery shells. Just like bullets, photons come in a vast array of energies and sizes. Bullets cover a size range of about four orders of magnitude. A bullet can weigh anywhere from less than a gram to several thousand kilograms. The range of the photon spectrum covers a great many orders of magnitude to which there is no limit in principle. A photon can have a wavelength greater than the size of the sun or it can have a wavelength much smaller than a proton.

The great difference between bullets and photons is their inverse size to mass ratio. The photons with the smallest wavelengths have the greatest mass and energy and the very largest photons have fleetingly small masses and energies. If guns shot photons, a BB gun would have the power of a large artillery shell and the battleship Missouri’s 16 inch guns would eject soap bubbles.

The dynamics of both photons and bullets are much the same in that the energy of each is divided into two distinct components. A bullet has two separate quantities of energy. The motion of its muzzle velocity and the spin energy caused by the rifling in the barrel. The energy of the muzzle velocity is relative to other reference frames but the spin energy is absolute to all frames. The main difference between a bullet and a photon is that the energy of a bullet’s muzzle velocity is usually much greater than its spin energy. With a photon, the energy from its velocity at C is exactly equal to the energy of its rotational spin at C. (E = MC2/2 + Iω2/2 =MC2). This is true only relative to photon rest. When a photon is measured in a moving frame, only the energy of its velocity is Doppler shifted. As with the bullet, the photon’s spin energy remains constant in all non-rotating frames. It is this effect that is responsible for the transverse Doppler effect.

Indeterminacy Principle

It was the non common sense inverse ratio between a photon’s energy and wavelength that Heisenberg seized upon to develop his Uncertainty Principle. At first it was called it the Indeterminacy principle because it placed an intrinsic limitation on what it was possible to measure or observe with photons. When we want to catch a baseball that is thrown toward us, we observe its motion toward us by visible light photons that reflect from it and are then absorbed by our eyes. These photons are so small and have so little energy that they have no noticeable effect on the trajectory of the ball.

Now let us consider a case where we don’t have photons and must determine the ball’s position and trajectory by bouncing rifle bullets off it. In this case, we might be able to determine the ball’s position when we measure a bullet that bounced off of it but we could know very little about its trajectory because the impact of the bullets would greatly change its direction of motion. This is what happens when we use photons to measure the motion and position of an atom. If we use photons that have large wavelengths, they will have little energy and thus not very much effect on the atom’s motion. However, these very large photons will give us only a fuzzy view of the atom’s position. By contrast, if we use very small and energetic photons we are able to “see” the atom’s position but its motion will be changed considerably each time an energetic photon is reflected from it.

The Indeterminacy Principle shows that, because of the fundamental physical properties of matter in general and photons in particular, it is not possible to confine them to a “point” but only to an “area of uncertainty”. The fact that we can’t make certain accurate measurements at the atomic level does not necessarily lead to the conclusion that these various atomic attributes do not have precise values until they are measured.

This is what Heisenberg and Bohr concluded when they established the Uncertainty Principle. If we do not know and can not measure a certain atomic parameter except within a certain range, then the Uncertainty Principle states that the parameter is uncertain within the range of (h/2ϖ) and in reality a specific value for it does not even exist.

Photons come in an enormous range of wavelengths and energies, yet when we measure them we can always obtain precise values. Do these photons actually have precise wavelengths and energies as they travel through space at C prior to being measured? Both the Uncertainty principle and the relativity theories state that they do not. A photon can be red shifted or blue shifted by the observer’s motion away from or toward the photon’s source. The Uncertainty principle states that these photons have no specific color as they travel through space and are neither red nor blue before being measured. It is true that we cannot know the wavelength of a photon before we measure it, nor when we do measure it, can we know what its intrinsic wavelength was relative to photon rest. This is because the observer can not know his exact absolute motion and therefore can’t tell if the photons he measures are red shifted of blue shifted.

In the Living Universe, all photons have a precise intrinsic wavelength as they move through photon rest at C. Photons can be red or blue shifted to any value by the absolute motion of an observer. When we replace a point with a shape, it is the old uncertainty principle value of h/2ϖ that now defines a particle’s shape. There are no point particles. Particles have a shape defined by their masslength. The masslength of all particles is exact at all times and the only uncertainty lies in our inability to accurately measure them.


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Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.