Home About J.Carter Questions and Answers Store Contact Us

The Living Universe

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

The Hydrogen Atom

The Evolving Atom

Today the mass ratio Mp/Me between the proton and electron is 1,836.152702. This has long been considered to be one of the fundamental constants of nature but recent measurements of this ratio indicate that its value may be increasing with time. If this data is correct, and the mass of the electron is gradually decreasing in relation to the proton, then it means that the values of the parameters governing the radiation of the hydrogen atom have also been slowly evolving with time. As the mass of the electron decreases, only its charge remains constant. The Bohr radius (aο) gets smaller in proportion to the decrease in mass and the Fine Structure Constant (α) increases at an inversely proportionate rate. Also, the ionization photon of hydrogen λ decreases its wavelength and increases its energy with the cube of the decrease in electron mass.

The reason that these parameters change in relation to the electron’s mass has to do with the universal constant for photon angular momentum (h/2ϖ =YC/2ϖ). Planck’s constant equals the Photon Mass Constant (Y) times the speed of light. This quantity of angular momentum is the same for all photons regardless of their wavelength. This is also the angular momentum (MeCαaο) of the hydrogen atom at its maximum possible energy (E =Me(Cα)2/2) when the electron is moving at (Cα) at the Bohr radius (aο).

In the Living Universe’s past, when the electron had greater mass, it had to move both more slowly and at a larger radius in order to maintain a single unit of angular momentum (MeCαaο). This requires that a hydrogen atom with a more massive electron has a lower maximum energy and a longer ionization photon wavelength (λ=4ϖaο/α). In the Living Universe, the shrinking mass of the electron increases the energy and temperature of the hydrogen atom’s photon spectrum.


The 7 Link Mechanical Structure of Hydrogen

In order to understand how the hydrogen atom has evolved since it was created, it is first necessary to examine the dynamics by which the interaction of a proton and electron produces photons. Neither particle is able to produce a photon by itself. A photon is made up of a matterbody spinning at C and an antimatterbody spinning at C in the opposite direction. They are bound together in a gear-like interaction that matches their opposite C spin velocities perfectly. The antimatterbody half of a photon comes from the electron and the matterbody half comes from the proton.

Seven circlon links form the structure of a hydrogen atom. The smallest #1 link or primary coil is at the classical electron radius and the largest is the #7 link that produces the photons. Each link is 11.7 (1/θ = 1/√α) times larger than the one before it. This makes it difficult to illustrate the atom at an accurate scale because the #7 link (11.7)7 is more than 30 million times larger than the #1 link. This makes it easy to see why an atom seems to be almost entirely empty space, even though it is actually a solid physical structure that is held together mechanically and not by any kind of field interactions.

When moving, the atom is a solid projectile that both bounces off and couples with other atoms and molecules to create other molecules. Molecules are held together by the same mechanical means that bonds the electron to the proton. At the nuclear level, protons and neutrons are held together in complex crystal like structures by the same mechanical principles. In deuterons and tritons the neutrons remain locked like spinning balls inside of the secondary coils of protons.

The Eternal Mechanical Bonds of Matter

All matter and photons interact through purely mechanical means. There are no “actions at a distance ” in nature. There are no “attractions ”, “repulsions ”, fields ”, dimensions ”, “space-times ”, “virtual particles ” “color fields ”, “zero point energy ”, “dark energy ” or “non-material waves ”. There is not even any “time ”. There is only matter and photons moving through absolute and empty photon rest space. As we shall see, even gravity is a purely local and mechanical interaction and there is no such thing as gravitational ‘fields ” or “gravitons ”. It follows that there can be no such thing as a unified “field ” solution to physics. There is only a single complex mechanical interaction that will explain everything.

In the Living Universe, particles are eternal and once formed maintain their identity. A photon maintains its identity as it travels through space for millions of years and then when it is absorbed, it maintains its identity within the atom.

Electron-Proton Charge Coils

circlon constant

The bare electron structure has a circlon shape consisting of three sets of spinning coils. The actual physical presence of the electron (mass) is contained within the primary coils at the classical electron radius (re =1) spinning on an infinite number of different axis. The secondary coils are 11.7 times larger (re/√α) and spin on an infinite number of axis that are all parallel to a single plane. The tertiary coil is another 11.7 times larger (re/α) and spins on a single axis.

From this basic stable structure, the electron generates a fourth circlon-like charge coil that rapidly increases in size while maintaining its primary coils at the same size as the electron’s tertiary coil. The charge chain coil doesn’t stop at 11.7 times increase in size but keeps rapidly increasing until it encounters the charge chain coil of another electron or proton. The expanding charge coils of two electrons will push each other apart. However, when the negative charge coil of an electron comes in contact with the positive charge coil of a proton, the two become intertwined and a hydrogen atom is formed. The positive and negative charge coils combine into the stationary photon coil called a circlon link that holds the atom together and pulls the electron closer to the proton. When the proton and electron join, the size of the newly formed hydrogen atom will be decided by the specific quantity of angular momentum contained in their previous motions. As they get closer together, energy is released in the form of photons that can have many different energies, but only one unit of angular momentum (Iω = h/2ϖ = MλC/2ϖ). Each time a photon is emitted, the proton and electron are pulled closer together and their “orbit ” contains one unit less of angular momentum. The atom will emit photons until it reaches a ground state where it has less than the one unit of angular momentum needed to emit a photon. If the atom is then struck by a photon or another atom, it can gain enough energy and angular momentum to emit more photons.

When the proton and electron’s charge coils couple together they form a stationary photon. The oppositely spinning coils of the two charges are pulled into and adjust with one another until they become exactly the same size and occupy the same space. When these two opposite charge coils reach perfect synchronicity, the stationary photon splits into two photons. One photon is emitted into space at C and the other stays within the atom to maintain the link between proton and electron. This process continues until all of the atom’s excess energy and angular momentum is converted into photons.

link radiation

The energy of the stationary photon is contained in the dual spins of the primary and secondary coils of both the positive and negative charge coils. When it splits in half to emit a photon, the circular velocity of the stationary photon’s secondary coils is converted to the rectilinear motion of the photon’s vector at C. The opposite primary coil spins of the negative coils (antimatter body) and positive coils (matter body) remain constant and stay with the photon after it is emitted.

Half of the photon’s physical structure comes from the electron and half comes from the proton. The photon gets half of its energy (E = MC2) from the kinetic energy (E = MC2/2) of its motion at C. The other half comes from the rotational kinetic energy (E = Iω2/2) of the opposite spins of its matterbody and antimatterbody coils. The photon gets its momentum (p = MC) from the combined mass of the matter and antimatter bodies moving along its vector at C. The photon gets it angular momentum from the wavelike motion of its vector. The angular momentum of the photon’s spinning matter coil perfectly balances out the angular momentum of the oppositely spinning antimatter coil for net angular momentum of zero.


Back to top

Living Universe Book

The Living Universe Book

A New Theory for the Creation of Matter in the Universe

In the Living Universe, the properties of matter slowly evolve with a transformation in the mass and size of the electron. Matter was created not out of the chaos of an explosion of space and time but rather from the perfect and orderly reproductive processes of ordinary matter in the form of electrons and protons. This book is available for sale.